WRITERS IN MALAYALAM ( മലയാള സാഹിത്യകാരന്മാര് )
Malayalam is a poetic language. Each successive generation has added its own contribution to Malayalam literature. There are somany writers who made the Language rich with their sincere works in various fields. Poetry, Drama, Short story, Novel, Kathakali, Thullal, Travelogue, Translation, Screen Play etc are some of its branches. This is a list of writers in Malayalam who did their donations for the growth of Language and Literature of Kerala. It is not a full list of writers. Sure, there may be omissions here.... Anyhow, hope, this blog will be helpful for students and those who are interested in Malayalam literature.
Cheeramakavi ( ചീരമകവി )
Cheeramakavi, according to Ulloor S.Parameshwaya Aiyer, was Sree Veerarama Varman, a king of Travancore from AD 1195 to 1208 who wrote the Ramacharitham, a collection of poems written at the end of preliminary stage in Malayalam literature's evolution. It is the oldest Malayalam book available. The collection has 1814 poems in it. Ramachritham mainly consists of stories from Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana. According to A.R.Rajaraja Varma who heavily contributed in the development of Malayalam grammar, is of the opinion that Malayalam originated from ancient Tamil. Ramacharitham is considered as a book written during the forming years of Malayalam. Anyhow, Ramacharitham shows the ancient style of Malayalam language
Niranam Kavikal (നിരാണം കവികള് )
Niranam is a small village in Southern Kerala.It is said that the three poets in Niranam became well-known in the name Niranam Poets who lived between AD 1350 and 1450. They were Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar. As they belongs to the Kannassa family, they also known as Kannassakavikal. The first two were uncles of Rama Panikkar. Many of their community members were sanskrit scholars and traditional astrologers. Their works are collectively known as Niranam Works. Madhava Panikkar wrote a condensed Malayalam translation of Bhagavad Gita, perhaps the first ever translation of that classic into any modern Indian language. Sankara Panikkar’s main work is Bharatamala, a condensation of Mahabharatam, is also the first major work of its kind in Malayalam. Rama Panikkar was the author of Ramayanam, Bhartam, Bhagavatam and Sivarathri Mahatmyam.
Cherussery Namboothiiri (ചെറുശ്ശേരി നമ്പൂതിരി )
Cherussery Namboothiiri is believed to have lived in 15th century. He was born in Kaanathoor village in Kolathunadu in Kannur District. Cherussery is the name of his ancestral home. Historians believe that he is the Punathil Sankaran Namboothiri. It is believed that Cherussry was a court poet of Udayavarma Raja of Kolathunadu. His masterpiece is Krishna Gadha. Cherussery is the designer of the Gaathha style of poetry in Malayalam. Krishna Gadha is the first Mahaakaavyam of Malayalam. Krishna Gadha is considered as a landmark in the development of Malayalam literature. Krishna Gatha, describes the story of Lord Krishna based on the Srimad Bhaagavatham. Cherussry was inspired by a lullaby sung by a mother to put her child to sleep and he followed the same pattern for the composition of Krishna Gadha. Some scholars opinined that he also wrote Cherussery Bhaaratham.
Thunchath Ramanujan Ezhuthachan (തുഞ്ചത് രാമാനുജന് എഴുത്തച്ചന് )
Ezhuthachan was born at Thunchan Veetil near Trikaniyur temple of Vettathunad in 16th century. He wrote Adhyatma Ramayanam in Malayalam. It was composed in the style of Kilippattu. When Zamorin attacked Vettathunad, Ezhuthachan started his pilgrimage with the completed copy of Adhyatma Ramayana. The Chambath Mannadiyar of Chitoor persuaded him to stay there and Ezhuthachan lived there by establishing an Ashrama. Ezhuthachan wrote Uttararamacharitham, Mahabharatham, Mahabhagavatham, Devi Mahathmyam, Brahmandapuranam etc. He made a revolution through his Kilippattu. It was he who gave an attractive form and shape to Malayalam language and made it suitable to handle any subject. He reformed the vocabulary and shaped separate Malayalam letters. He contributed the Manipravalam style to Malayalam language by bringing together Malayalam and Sanskrit in a unique form. He placed the whole society in the path of spiritual progress. Along with the emergence of Bhakthi cult in India, it blossomed in Kerala also. The Bhakthi cult of Ezhuthachan exercised a deep influence in leading the nair families, which was suppressed under the Brahmin supremacy during 5th to 17th centuries, to the path of progress. Ezhuthachan gave the leadership for unification and renewal of two branches of literature, which was moving in diverse directions up to the 15th century. The lyrics he composed in kilippattu brought Malayalam literature to modern path.
Poonthaanam ( പൂന്താനം )
Poonthaanam,(1547-1640 AD) was an ardent devotee of Guvuvaayoorappan and one of the important devotional poets of Malayalam. Poonthanam was the family name, his personal name is not known. Poonthanam was born into a Namboodiri Brahmin family, near Perinthalmanna in the Malappuram. His famous work is Jnanappana. It is the expressions of his grief-stricken feeling on the death of his only son. It is the most reminiscent, dynamic, simple, natural and melancholic poem in Malayalam. He wrote poetry as an effective medium of self-expression. He is believed to have lived before the period of Ezhuthachan. He also wrote Santhaana Gopalam Pana Ghanasamgham, Sreekrishna Karnamritam, "Aanandamritham, Noottettu Hari. He is contemporary of Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, another famous poet associated with Guruvayur. Lord Guruvaayoorappan has appreciated Poonthanam's bhakthi various times directly and it is believed that he himself came down to earth and taken Poonthanam personally to Vaikuntam. The house which he lived in Malappuram District is now taken care by Guruvayur Devaswom.
Unnayi Variyar (ഉണ്ണായി വാരിയര് )
No details available about Unnayi Variyar's real name, exact date and place of birth, his family background and literary achievements. It is believed that Unnayi Variyar lived between 1674 and 1754 AD. There is consensus among scholars that his family name was 'Akathoottu Warriam' and that he was a garland maker by profession at Irinjalakkuda Koodalmanikyam Temple. His Majer workNalacharitham aattakatha is world famous. Anyhow, He was a poet, writer, scholar, dramatist who lived in Kerala during the later part of the 17th century.Besides Nalacharitham aattakatha He wrote Ramapanchashathi and Girijakalyanam.
Ramapurathu Warrier (രാമപുരത് വാര്രിയര് )
Kunchan Nambiar (കുഞ്ചന് നംബിയാര് )
Kunchan Nambiar (1705–1770) was a renowned Malayalam poet and inventor of the art form Ottamthullal. Kunchan Nambiar spent his early childhood at Killikkurussimangalam in Kerala, his boyhood at Kudamaloor and his youth at Ambalappuzha.He was the master of satirist poetry. The chief contribution of Nambiar is the invention and popularization of a new performing art known as Thullal. Kunchan Nambiar is believed to have written over forty Thullal composition. They belong to all the three types: 1 Otttan, 2 Seethankan and 3 Parayan. The most important of Nambiar's Thullals are: Syamantakam, Ghoshayatra, Kiratam, Santanagopalam, Patracharitam, Kartaviryarijunavijam, Bakavadham, Kalyana Saugandhikam, Hariniswayamvaram, Tripuradakanam and Sabha Pravesam. Nambiar was an extrovert and observed the life around very closely. He was also very critical of the social evils he saw around him. Thus even when the main story is from the Puranas, he would introduce digressions in plenty and use such occasions to comment on life in his own time. He did not worry about the charge of anachronism. He knew his audience very well: not scholars and poets, but laymen, especially soldiers, barely literate.
Iraryimman Thampi (ഇരയിമ്മന് തമ്പി )
Benjamin Bailey (ബെഞ്ചമിന് ബയിലേയ )
He was a British missionary in Kerala for 34 years. He left Travancore in 1850. He was ordained 1815 and moved to Kerala in 1816 where he founded a mission station in Kottayam. Benjamin. It was he who established the first printing press (the Kottayam CM language S press) and started printing Malayalam in Kerala. He was the first lexicographer in the language. He translated the Bible into Malayalam and in 1846 published the first Malayalam-English dictionary.After two years, English-Malayalam dictionary also were published.
Dr. Herman Gundart who stayed at Illikkunnu for more than 20 years, is a pride of Thalassery in Kerala. He wrote the first English-Malayalam translator dictionary. He was born in Stuttgart on February 14, 1814 and came to India as a Christian missionary. He studied history and religion from Tubin University and got doctorate from Switzerland. In 1834 he become a member of Basal Mission. Basal Mission Society was his motivation for coming to India. He studied Hindi, Bengali and Tamil in early day itself. In 1939 he started a school in the Bungalow. He was the first school inspector for Malabar and South Karnataka. In 1847 first Malayalam news paper 'Rajyasamacharam' started from Thalassery. Dr. Herman Gundert died on April 25 1893.
Vaikath Pachu Moothathu
Vaikathu Paramesvara Sivadvija, popularly known as Vaikath Pachu Moothathu, was a versatile scholar of Ayurveda, Sanskrit, Malayalam and history, pioneered in writing the first autobiography in Malayalam, established the first institution for learning the traditional Indian medicine, which developed to Government Ayurveda College, Thiruvanathapuram in the later era. He was a well known Ayurveda Physician, Poet, Astrologer and writer. He was born in Vaikom in 1814, in Kottayam district. Rama Charitram Mahakavyam,Thiruvitamcore Charitram, Hradyapriya and Sukhasadhakam are his major donations to Malayalam. he was awarded with the Veera Sringala by Maharaja His Highness Ayilyam Thirunal which is preserved, even today, at his residence.
George Mathan was born on
September 25, 1819 and did most of his writing in his ancestral house in Kidangannoor. He is the first Malayalee who wrote the Malayalam grammar book at first in Malayalam, called "Malayanmayude Vyakaranam". His other books like "Satyavadakhedam", "Marumakkathaya Sampradayam" etc. He has written Essys named Bhoomi Urundathakunnu, Anthareeksham, Marumakkatthayathalulla Dosham, Sthreekalute Yogyamaya Samuhyasthithi. George Mathan died on March 4, 1870
Kutti Kunju Thankachchi was the daughter of the great Iriyamman Thambi - who gave us eternal songs like Omana Thingal Kidavo. She was born in 1820. Her real name was Laksmi Kutty. She got her main education from her father - in Malayalam and Tamil, along with debating and grammar. Thankachchi died at the age of 84. She is famous for her three "attakathakal" - Shreemati Swayamvaram, Mitra Saha Moksham and Parvati Swayamvaram. She also wrote a very famous musical play "AjnataVaasam." She also wrote innumerable 'kaitottikalli pattu' 'oonjal pattu', 'kurathi pattu', 'kummi' and popular religious songs about Lord Krishna and about temples. The Kerala Sahitya Akademy published a 'Collected Works of Kutti Kunju Thankachchi' in 1979.
Kovunni became famous in Malayalam with his Malayalam grammer book Keralakoumudi. He was born on 31, August, 1830. After studying Sanskrit, he served as a teacher in Provincial School, Kozhikode and Madra Presidency College. He has written his auto-biography and a collection of poems called Kaval Rathnavali. Kovunni Nedungadi died on 26, January 1889.
Several Sankrit books were translated and explained in great detail by Kaikulangara Rama Warrier,who was acclaimed as a Maha Panditan in his time. He was born in 1832 in Trichur district, the third child of Narayani Warasiyar of Kaikulangara Illam. His father was Kaithakotta Bhattathiripad. He was a traordinarily gifted child and he went to study at the Tripunithura Kovilakam under Palapuratthu Puthiyedathu Govindan Nambiar who was the recognized scholar of the time. He left for Karnataka where he became a tutor at the Kumbalam Palace. He also studied under Yogananda Swami who taught him 'Brahmasutrashankarabhashyam.' He also was awarded the titles of 'Vagdasan', 'Ramananda Nathan' and 'Pandita Parasa Vendran'. Returning to Kerala, he settled in Vettathu Nadu and married Kutti Warasiyar and had a son and three daughters from this relationship. His famous works include: Yudhishtra Vijayam, Pushpa Bana Vilasam, Amaru Shatakam, Naishadam, Makham, Kumara Sambhavam, Raghu Vamsam, Sree Krishna Vilasam and many others.
Pandit Karuppan was was born on May 24, 1885, in a Dheevara family at Cheranelloor, near Ernakulam. He was a poet, dramatist, and social reformer who lived in Kerala. he used his literary skill and organizational ability to combat illiteracy, social injustice, casteism, and superstitions. Pandit Karuppan had many published works as a poet and dramatist. Achara Bhooshanam, Arayaprasasthi,Baalakalesam, Baalodyanam, Bhaasha Bhaimeeparinayam, Bhanjithavimanam, Chanjenkutty,Chithralekha, Dheevara Tharuniyude Vilapam, Dhruvacharitham, Edward Vijayam, Jaathikkummi,Kairaleekouthukam, Kattile Jyeshtan, Lalithopaharam, Lankamardanam, Mahasamadhi,Mangalamala, Panchavadi, Sakunthalam Vanchippattu, Sangeetha Naishadham, Soudamini, Sree Budhan, Sree Ramavarma, Sugathasooktham, Thirunalkkummi, Udyanavirunnu, Ulukopakhyanam, and Vallorkkavitha are his major works.
Venmani Achan Namboodiripad
Kerala's 'Guru Kulams' or the famed centres of learning were for many decades centred around the Kodungalloor Kovilakam. All those whoe were born there contributed immensely to Malayalam literature. And the leading light among them was Venmani Achan Namboodiripad.During his period Malayalam writing was steeped in 'shrigaram'. It was Venmani who steered Kerala's poetry from its remphasis on Sanskrit and Tamil towards the 'Manipravalam' style of Malayalam. This also gave rise to the Venmani style of writing. Achan did not write much. 'Gajendra Moksham - Parayan Thullal' is one of his acclaimed works - and tells the story of Indradhyumnan of the Pandyas. He also composed very lyrical hymns and 'sringara' slokas. Born in 1816 at Venmani Illam in Vellarapilli, Alwaye, as only son. Achan married in 1838 Sreedevei Antharjanam and had one son, Venmani Mahan Namboodiripad. Achan died at the age of 74.
Naduvathu Achan Namboodiri
Naduvathu Achan Namboodiri (born 1841) was once a household name in Kerala. His 'Bhagavadoot' - a literary drama was'vanavasam' of the Panadavas and derives heavily from the Mahabaratha and the drama is lyrical and poetical to the extreme. His father died just before he was born. He studied at the school of Puthiyedath Govindan Nambiar (and one of his schoolmates was the famous Kaikulankkara Rama Warrier). Nambiar was a 'rajaguru'. He married Arya of the Vadakkanjeeri Illam and became wealthy. With the support of the then Thruppunithura royalty, he also came into great wealth from the Thathambilli and Nedumbilli Illams - under the order of the Maharaja of Cochin. Achan was the son of Naduvillathu Divakaran Namboodiripad and Avitathoor Arya Antharjanam. Achan grew learnt by rote by most Malayalis at one time because of its sheer enchantment. Achan later studied medicine under Thaikkatu Narayanan Moosu and came to be known as a good physician. In 1880 he became the secretary of one of the richest Zamindars in Kerala, Kosseri Karthavu - with whom he stayed for nine years. One of his sons Naduvathu Mahan Namboodiribad became a celebrated poet.
Venmani Mahan Namboodiripad
Venmani Mahan Namboodiripad,born in 1844, excelled in the art of 'sringaram' or to take it further in the art of 'vipralambasringara,' (which occurs when the lovers are apart). He wrote verses on the people of Trichur, Oorakam, Aaratupuzha - but it is to the credit of Mahan Namboodiripad that he sough to free Malayalam verse from the chains of Tamil literature. He also lived for several years in Ernakumalm, Thrupunithura, Kodungaloor and Koottyam. It was at the Kodungalloor Palace that Mahan found his calling as a poet. He married Kalidevi Antharjanam of Thekinniyedath. In 1893, he contracted small-pox and died of the illness. 'Pooraprabhandam' was his most famous piece of writing and one which has been reprinted several times. The poem deals with a trip which he made with his friends to Illangunnapuzha and Njarakkal on the way to see the Trichur pooram. Another of his famous work was the verse story 'Bhootibhooshcharitam' about a legendary kingdom called Azhakapuri.
Kathollil Achuta Menon
Achuta Menon - the writer of the magnificent work Jaimini Ashwamedham - was the only son of Kathollil Kalyani Amma and Mambara Narayanan Namboodiri. His birth was in the year 1851. After his primary education at home, he was sent to the Kodungalloor Palace to study Sanskrit under Vidwan Kunjiramavarma Thamburan - and at the age of 16 started writing poetry - composing some 20 slokas in an hour during in-house competitions. After he became the' karanavar' (head) of Kathollil tharavad, he held several poets' assemblies - and even the great Vallathol was a participant at several of these meetings.Achuta Menon's acclaimed works include: Pratapamakadcharitam, Anandaramayanam, Vikramadityacharitam, Naganandam, Rukminiswayamwaram, Kavipushpamala and several others. His Jaimini Ashwamedham - which deals with a king who rules Keraladesam - has some 19,000 verses and its standard is still unmatched in South Indian literature. Achuta Menon died in1909.
Kuttamath Cheria Rama Kurup
Kuttamath Cheria Rama Kurup (1847-1906) was a dramatist, poet, grammarian and Ayurvedic physician of considerable merit. He has composed several Sanskrit works such asSubhadrapaharanam, Rukmini Swayamvaram and Sita Swayamvaram. His Sarva Garala Padmochanam is a comprehensive work on Visha Vaidyam (Toxicology). Among his Malayalam works may be mentioned Kesivadham, Kamsavadham, Sri Ramavatarams and three Thullal poems, viz.,Krishnavatharam, Poothanamoksham and Ahalyamoksham
Sree Narayana Guru
Narayana Guru born on August 20, 1856 at Chembazhanthy, near Thiruvananthapuram. His father was Kochuvila Madanasan and mother: Smt. Vayalvarathu Kutty. Sree Narayana Guru was one of the social reformers who laid the foundation stone of the modern Kerala. He was the prophet of a new era and a great saint. His philosophical thoughts eradicated the malevolent rituals and customs prevailing in the contemporary society and wiped out the caste system. His philosophical thoughts were of reformation and restructure. Anyhow, Sree Narayana Guru was a renowned litterateur also. Atmopdesashathakom, Daivasathakom, Kundalinippattu, Anukambalakshanam, Jathilakshanam, Sivashathakom, Adwaithadeepika, Naratnamanjari, Darshanamala, Nirvruthiprapancham, Vinayakashtakom, Thevappathika, Jnanadarshnam, Kalinatakom, Indriavyragyam, Thirukkural (translation from Tamil) are some of his important works. Sree Naryana Guru passed away on September 20, 1928
Chambathil Chathukutti Manadiyar
Born in 1857, Chathukutti was the son of Chambathu Ammu Manndaissyaru and Kenoth Shamu Menon. His mother died at childbirth and he was reared by his aunt. A sickly boy, he had his early education with Polpulli Raman Nair and later with Venkitadrishastrikal in Trichur, It was here that he became close to Kundoor Narayana Menon, C.P. Achuta Menon and Kunju Vareetu. He finished his law exam and practised at the Municipal court in Muvattupuzha and later in Trichur. Chathukkuti married Ambat Janaki Amma (their son Dr. A.R. Menon became a famous physician and was a minister in the Kerala Government ). Chathukutti shone as a lawyer, a poet (his works were published in Malayalam Manorama, Mangalodayam and Vidyavinodini) and as a dramatist and musician. He died at the untimlely age of 48. His notable works include Janakiparinayam (about Bharatan's sorrow at the departurne of Lord Rama), Halasyamahatmyam (in Sanskrit), and his most famous work Uttararamacharitam - a drama which was staged throughout Kerala at that time
Oravangara Neelakandan Namboodiri
Neelakandan was born in 1857 - to Shankaran Namboodiri of Oravangar mana and Parvati Antharjanam. He had his early education with Kondungaloor Kunjiramavarma Thamburan and his classmates included most of the latter day famous poets of Malayalam. At an early age he showed great interest in magic and 'mandrikam' - and he was given the name of Kuttirajan by Sreemoolam Thirunal Maharajah because of his ability to cure illnesess. Oravangara wrote a lot of slokas relating to Bhadrakali - Laxmisthavam, Ambasthavam, Ambikavimshati, Kalisthavam, Devisthavam and others. He also translated several works from Sanskrit including Kumarasambhavam, Azhakapurivarnanam and Devi Mahatmyam. His final work Naradopakhyanam is incomplete. He fell ill in 1916 and died in August of that year. Oravangar was a prominent member of the Kondungalloor poetry circle. He also composed some famous Kaikottikalipattu including Saraswatisthuthi, Naradachinda, Kaaliyamardhanam. His Balopadesham is a great work aimed at schoolchildren - with 126 verses.
Moyinkutty Vaidyar, who born to Unni Mammad and Kunjamina in 1857 at Ottupara, near Kondotti in Malappuram district in 1857, is historically considered as one of the most renown and authentic poets of the Mappila pattu genre of Malayalam language songs in Kerala. His father was famous practitioner of Ayurvedic medicine and a poet too. Moyinkutty Vaidyar continued his family tradition of Ayurvedic medical practice and learnt Sanskrit and Arabic languages. At a very young age of seventeen, he composed the romantic epic Badarul Munir - Husnul Jamal (1872). The Badar Padappattu andMalappuram Padappatt are most popular songs in another pattern of the poetic style. Elippada ,Ottakathinteyum maaninteyum katha, Baithila, Hijra, Kilathimala, Moolapuranam, Uhad Padappattu,Theevandichinth, Swaleeqath, Mullappoocholayil and Karamath Mala are his major works. He died at the age of 40 in 1892 leaving behind two sons and a daughter. No known photograph or painting of the poet exists today and none of his descendants survived after his children.
Appu Nedungadi is the name of T.M.Rao Bahadur (Thalakodi Madathil Rao Bahadur). Nedungadi is the term generally used to describe the men of the caste, and the women are known by name Kovilamma. Appu Nedungadi, author of Kundalatha, which was published in 1887, making it one of the earliest novels in Malayalam. In 1899 he established Nedungadi Bank, the oldest private sector commercial bank at Calicut in Kerala. The bank was incorporated in 1913; In 2003 it was taken over by Punjab National Bank.
Oyyarathu Chandumenon, also known as O. Chandumenon, born at Naduvannur in Kozhikode District on 9th January 1847 was the novelist who wrote it based on the laws of a novel. In 1889, He wrote the Novel "Indulekha". the first Malayalam fictional work which met with all the requisite characteristics typical of a novel according to a widely accepted Malayalam literary convention. Indulekha throws light on the Nair community during the second half of the nineteenth century when it was undergoing a transformation following western influences and English education. It exalts education and satirizes the orthodox practices of temporary marital alliances between Nair women and Namboodiri men. Indulekha was translated into English 1891. Chandumenon got his English education at the school level. He began his career as a clerk in the government service. He continued to teach himself English and won approval of English officials. Willayam Logan, who was the collecter during the time, appointed him as a clerk at Sub-Collector's office. Through a series of promotions, he became a municiff, and in 1892 became the sub-judge of Calicut. He began a second novel named "Sarada" the first part of which appeared in 1892. Chandumenon died on 7 September 1899.
Kandathil Varghese Mappila
Kandathil Varghese Mappila, born in 1857, was the founder of Malayala Manorama, the daily of Malayalam. He was a source of energy and strength of the literary, social and cultural workers. He started his career in 1881as the Editor of“Kerala Mithram” published from Kochi. In the year 1888, he formed a Joint Stock Company and founded Malayala Manorama. It was his efforts that helped to form a common platform of all litterateurs of Kerala, which was divided into three regions. This initiative gave birth to a great movement known as Bhashaposhinisabha. Later, a magazine entitled Bhashaposhini was also published as a monthly. He died on July 6, 1904.
Punnasseri Nambi Neelakanta Sharma
Punnasseri Nambi Neelakanta Sharma was a renowned Sanskrit scholar and teacher of Kerala. He was born on June 17, 1858 in Pattambi in Palakkad district to a Moosad family, Narayanan Nambi and Achuthath Nangayya Antharjanam. He learned Sanskrit in the customary way and mastered the branches of traditional knowledge of Vyakaranam(grammar), Alankaram(aesthetics), Vaidyam(medicine) and Jyothisham(astrology). In 1888 he started 'Saraswathodyothini' a center for Sanskrit teaching which later became Govt. Sanskrit College , Pattambi. He also founded 'Vijnanachinthamani' printing press and 'Vijnanachinthamani' hospital. He has received various titles and honours from the Maharajas of Travancore and Cochin states and has chaired many academic bodies. He died on September 14, 1934. His major works are Jyothisasthra Subodhini, Panchabodha vyakhya, Prasnamargathinu uparathnashikha vyakhyanam, Chamalkara chinthamani vyakhya,Mahisha mangalabhanavyakhya and Sreekrishna vilasa.
Cannankara Velayudhan Raman Pillai(C.V.Raman Pillai) born on May 19, 1858 in Thiruvananthapurmto Neelakanta Pillai, a Sanskrit scholar and Parvathy Pillai, who were both from middle class families and were employees at the Palace of the Maharaja of Travancore. C.V.Raman Pillai was one of the great Indian Novelists and Play Rights and the greatest novelist and pioneering playwright and journalist in Malayalam. Modern Malayalam drama traces its origins to C.V.'s works. His very first attempt at literary creation, was the first original play in Malayalam. Candramukheevilasam was written in 1884 and was staged for four days successively in 1887 at His Highness Maharaja's College, Trivandrum. This was also the first staging of a play in Malayalam by educated amateur actors. In fact, original Malayalam drama in prose began with his eleven farces, nine of which were published. They set the tone and paved the way for the Kerala theatre that it is now. His other main works areKuruppillakkalari(comedy), Marthandavarmma, Dharmmaraaja, Ramaramabahadoor andPremamrutham. The first three novels are historical and the last one(Premamrutham) is social. Hedied on 21st, March,1922.
.Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, also known as Kerala Varma, also spelt Kerala Varma Valiya Koilthampuran born in February 19, 1845 was a great poet and translator who had an equal facility in writing in English and Sanskrit from the Indian state of Kerala. He was part of the royal family of erstwhile Parappanad. Kerala Varma has been called "a colossal Renaissance figure in 19th century Kerala" and "perhaps the first of the major writers in Malayalam who consciously and deliberately began to absorb and celebrate the Western influence" on his native literature. He advocated resuscitation of Malayalam literature by absorbing selected Western influences combined with native Sanskritic elements in poetry, drama and prose.Kerala Varma was in close touch with literary movements in both northern and southern parts of Kerala. His work Abhijnana Sakunthalam(1898), a translation of Kalidasa's Sakunthalam, is one of the most acclaimed works of poetry in Malayalam.Kerala Varma has also been known as Kerala Kalidasan.He has also writtenMayoorasandesham on the line of Kalidasa's MeghaDooth. His celebrated work Visakhavijaya was written after his release by Visakham Thirunal.
Mahakavi Kuttamath Kanniyoor Kunjikrishna Kurup as born in 1880 to Unnamman Unithiri and Devaki Amma, in the family of Kunniyoor at Cheruvathoor in Kasargode district. He composed many musical dramas: Devayani Charitham, Vidya Sankha Dhwani, Baala Gopala, Atbudha Paarana, Harichandran, Dhroova Madhavam, Nachikethas, Draupadi Keechakam, Rugmini Swayamvaram. Kuttamath joined Neeleswaram Rajas High school as Teacher. He entered the freedom struggle as a follower of Kelappaji. He died in 1943.
Kuttippurath Kesavan Nair
This poet, born at Thiruvilwamala in 1882 as the son of Kochunnimenon and Meenakshiaama, was from Kuttippuram in Malappuram district. The agrarian beauty and the innocence of country-sides, were his themes of almost all works.Kavyopaharam, Navyopaharam, Prapancham, Onam Kazhinjju are the main works of Kuttippuram. Moreover, he has translated Sakunthalam and Bhagavathgeetha from Sanskrit to Malayalam. He died in 1959.
Kottarathil Sankunni is a well known author of Malayalam literature, was born on 23 March 1855 in Kottayam. He made huge contributions in both Poetry and Prose. He died on 22 July 1937. He started compiling the legends of Kerala in 1909 and completed the work in eight volumes over a quarter of a century. Aithihyamaala (Garland of Legends), is a collection of stories of legends prepared by Kottarathil Sankunni. The works on the legends were collected and published by Sankunni in the famous Malayalam literary magazine of the nineteenth century, the Bashaposhini. Later, they were collected in eight parts and published by the Reddiar Press in Quilon, sometime in the early twentieth century. India’s first writers’ cooperative, the National Bookstall started publishing these articles as collections on behalf of the 'Kottarathil Sankunni Memorial Committee' in 1974. Such is their popularity that, from 1991 till 2004 almost 150,000 copies of these stories were distributed.
kandathil varghese mappila
kandathil varghese mappila is a great personality of 19th century who became famous as a journalist and writer in Malayalam. He born to Karutha Nalloor Ippan and Cherukara Saramma in 1858, at Niranam near Thiruvalla in Kottayam. He became the editor of Keralamithram Masika, at the age of twenty two. He strated Malayala Manorama in 1888. Bhashaposhinisabha also was started by kandathil varghese mappila in 1897. He was interested in giving enouragement to new writers all over Kerala. He died on 26 June, 1904. His first and main work is a drama named Ebrayamkutty, which was based on Bible. Sathcharithasathakam, kalahineedamanakam, Yoshabhushanam, Vismayajananam etc.
Kattakkayam Cheriyan Mappila
Kattakkayam Cheriyan Mappila better known as Kattakkayam, born on July 24, 1859, was a great poet and Sanskrit scholar. His father was Ulahannan Mappila and mother Siscili. His early poems were published in a journal called Satyananda Kahalam. He has written plays on the temptation of Christ on the story of Oliver and Charlemagne and St. Thomas, the Apostle. His greatest work is SreeYesu Vijayam. Esther Charitham, Oliver Vijayam, Kalavathy, Asannamarana Chinthasathakom are his other important works. He died on November 29,1936.
Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar
Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar (1861 - 14 November 1914) was a Malayali barrister, landlord, journalist, essay writer, critic and short story writer. He was one of the pioneers in these fields in Kerala. Nayanar was born in an aristocratic Nair family known as "Vengayil" in Chirackal Thaluk, North Malabar. He was born to Perinchellor Puliapadappu Hardasan Somayaji, a Nambudiri and Kunjakkam Amma of Vengayil. Nayanar was educated in Calicut and Saidampetta Agricultural College. In 1907 he became member of Malabar District Board. In 1912 he was elected to Madras Assembly. Nayanar came to the literary world through Kerala Pathrika. He wrote the first Malayalam short story,Vasanavikruthi. Under the pen names "Kesari", "Vajrasoochi","Vajrabahu", Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar's works obtained wide appreciation from all over South India. Kesari was a sharp critic of social reality, criticising social inequalities. He was also a close friend of Dr.Herman Gundert and William Logan who did a lot of research on the history, language, culture of Kerala.
Kundoor Narayana Menon
Kundoor Narayana Menon is a great poet who became famous by writting poetris in pure malayalam. He, the son of Komarath Krishanmenon and Oorakath Kundur Kalyani Amma, born at Kundur in Trichur district in June 1861.He died in July,1936. His notable works are the four kaavyas named Komappan, Pakkanar, Kannan, Kochi Cheriya Sakthan Thampuran. Menon wrote Akavoor Chathan, Naranath Branthan, Vaduthala nair, Odividya etc in manipravalam. He never used the Sanskrit words in his malayalam poetries.
Anthappayi is the writer who completed the uncompleted novel of Sarada of O.Chandu Menon, as a second part. He born in January 1, 1862 in Tricher. He was notonly a novelist, but also an eminent critic. His famous works includes the Sarada (Part-11) andNaluperiloruthan(novel). Bhashanatakaparisodhana, Sumarggapravesika, Dharmopadesika, Bharthruhari Subhashitham, Anathasneham etc are his other works.
A R. Rajaraja Varma (1863–1918) was a poet, grammatician and Professor of Oriental Languages at Maharaja's College (present University College, Thiruvanandapuram. He wrote widely in Sanskrit and Malayalam. He is known as Kerala Panini for his contributions to Malayalam Literature A mixed effect of the influence of the study of British Romantic poets of the 19th century and a renewed interest in the real classics of Sanskrit literature can be seen in his poems. His important works are Kerala Panineeyam, Bhashabhooshanam, and Vritha Manjari. Bhangavilaapam and Malayavilasam are his poems. Bhasha Megha Dootu, Bhasha Kumara Sambhavam, Malayala Sakuntalam, Malavikagnimitram, and Charudattam are among his translations. and creative talent, was the moving spirit behind the great literary renaissance in Kerala.
Kodungallur Kunhikkuttan Thampuran
Rama Varma, known as Kodungallur Kunhikkuttan Thampuran, born in 1864 to Venmani Achan Namboothirippad and Kunhippilla Thampuratti. Valappil Unni Asan, Muunnaamkuur Godavarma Thampuran, Vidwan Kunhirama Varman Thampuran were his teachers in early age.Thampuran started writing poerty in 1047. At the age of 16, turned full time to writing poetry. Started in Sanskrit. Turned to writing poetry in Malayalam under the influence of Venmani Achan and Venmani Mahan. His first Book Kavibharatham was published in 1062. He started two literary movements in Malayalam: Paccha (pure) Malayalam and Purana Translation. His death happened in 1088 Makaram 10th (At the age of 49). His eminent works: 14 in Sanskrit. In Malayalam: 18 poems, 11 Ruupakams, 16 Gathas, 38 Khanda Kaavya, 3 in health, grammer, 18 translations. It is said that Kunhikkuttan Thampuran started translation of Mahabharatha, single handedly on 1979 Metam 25. Plan to translate 50 slokas a day, during one yaama (till 9 o'clock). Plan to finish in 4-5 years. Speed increased upto 150 slokas one yaama. Translation completed on 1082 Kanni 12 (874 days). Metre by Metre translation. He has been truthful to even broken Metres in the original!
Sreekanteswaram G. Padmanabha Pillai (1864 -1946), popularly known as Sreekanteswaram, was a lexicographer and scholar best known for his Malayalam dictionary Sabdatharavali. Padmanabha Pillai was born in Sreekanteswaram in Thiruvandapuram. He studied English, Tamil and Sanskrit and wroteDuryodhanavadham and Dharmaguptavadham at a young age. He later worked as a lawyer. He started his work on Sabdatharavali at the age of 32. The first part of the book came out in 1918. The dictionary, which runs into more than 1600 pages, took twenty years to complete. His son P. Damodara Pillai later compiled a concise version. Padmanabha Pillai also prepared a pocket dictionary in 1906. Padmanabha Pillai wrote around sixty books in his lifetime. He ran the magazineBhashavilasam for a time and left two dictionaries - Sahityabharanam and an English-Malayalam dictionary - incomplete at the time of his death.
Thottakkad Ikkavamma was born in 1864. The contributions of Thottakkad Ikkavamma were great. She became famous through her drama Subhadrarjunam. She was prominent among the women litterateur and playwright. Her works argued for equal status of women in society. Her important works are Subhadrarjunam, Nalacharitham (Dramas), Sanmargopadesham (Thullal), Kurathypattu, Kalki puranam.
Krishna Pilla born in 1867 in Kayamkulam. He was a Government emplyee in Trivandraum. He died in 1953. Paschthyasathraruthantham, Upanyasamala, Thiruvithamkur Charithrakathakal, Srushticharitham, Vijnanasakalangal etc are his main works in Malayalam.
Seevolli Narayanan Nambudiri
Seevolli Narayanan Nambudiri
Seevolli Narayanan Nambudiri (1868-1905) was a well known poet and an Ayurvedic physician.Narayanan Nambudiri was born in Seevolli Illam near Aluva. He learned Sanskrit including Grammer, Logic, Astrology and Ayurvedam, under Thaikkatt Mooss. Narayanan mastered Malayalam, Sanskrit, Tamil, Kannada and had a working knowledge of Tulu, Marathi and English. He also learned allopathy under a government doctor. Narayanan Nambudiri's main works are Madana Kethana Charitham, Saaropadesa Dasakam, Oru Katha, Dathyooha Sandesam, Insparsa Naatakam, and Ghoshayaathra.. His devotional Slokams (verses) are the best examples of the rare phenomenon of humour, in devotional poetry. He has also written two poems in Sanskrit, Paarvathi Viraham andDevimaahaatmyam.
K. C. Kesava Pillai was born in Kothethu Veedu, Poozhikkara, Paravur in Quilon District of Kerala, in 1868. He had a school education up to the 5th grade and gained a proficiency in music. Kesava Pillai was a composer of Carnatic music Poet Laureate of Travancore and made contributions to Malayalamliterature. Sangeetha manjari and Sthavaratnavali, Sangeethamaalika, Eswarasthothranga, Sthavaratnamalika, Asanna Marana Chinta Satakam, Sree vasudeva, Sreemoolarajavijayam,Aasannamaranachintasatakam, Kerala Bhashaa Narayaneeyam, Subhashitham, Ratnakaram,Abhinayamalika, Kesaviyam, Sadarama, Lekshmi Kalyanam, Raghava Madhavam,Vikramorvaseeyam, etc are some of his major works.composed over 100 keerthans, prayers in praise of God. He died in 1914.
Oduvil Kunhikrishna Menon
Oduvil Kunhikrishna Menon, born in 1869, near Vadakkanchery in Trichur district, is one of the first story writers in Malayalam. He was the son of Machat Kunhikkutti Amma and Alathur Janardhanan Namboodiri. He worked as a Thahsil Majistrate in old Cochi state. He came into the first row of malayal story writers after the publication of the book Nalukathakal a collection of four stories. Ajavilamoksham vanchippattu, kalyanikalyanam(drama) and the poems named Vinodini, Lakshmivilasa sathakam, Oru police inspectarude vadham, Oru Pathivrathayude Katha, Kumbhakonayathra, Madirasi Kadalkkara are his donations to Malayalam language. He died on 8th May, 1916.
Azhakath Tharavad Azhakath is one of the famous Nair families of south Kerala. Mahakavi Azhakath Padmanabhakurup belonges to this family. He born in the year 1869. Padmanabhakurup gave birth to a mahakavya named Ramachandravilasam that keeps all the laws for a mahakavyam in the language. The story of Ramayana is describing in this work. Prathaparudrakalyanam(drama), Kumbhanasavadham(attakkatha), Sree Ganesapuranam(kilippattu), Prabhusakthi(Khandakavyam), Thulabharasathakam(translation), Sahithyasarabodhini etc are the donations of him to the Malayalam language.
Mooloor S. Padmanabha Panicker
He is also known as Mooloor Asān or Sarasa Kavi, meaning "humour poet". He was a poet and a prominent social reform activist from the Travancore region of present-day Kerala. Padmanābhan was born in his mother's ancestral home named Kaavil near Panayannaarkavu, close to the town of Mannar in Central Travancore on 6th March in 1869. His father was Mooloor Sankaran Vaidyar and mother was Veluthakunj Amma. He started writing poems right from his childhood. He is a man of letters who dedicated his life not only for the literary work but also for his community Ezhava and the state as a whole. He was a member in the Sree Moolam Praja Sabha from 1914 onwards. He was an excellent orator as well. His major works include: Nalacharitham, Krishnarjuna Vijayam, Kiratham, Asannamarana Chintha Sathakom,Krishanrjuna Vijayam, Kuchelavrutham, Kokila Sandesam,Avasarokthimala,Theendal Gadha, Moonnu Tharattukal, Kavithaniroopanam, Balabodhanam, Neethisara Samuchyam, Pooppadappattu, Kalahamsam(poems), Sanmarga Chandrika, Dharmapadam"(translations), and Subhadraharanam (drama).
He distinguished man of letters, was an eminent social reformer, founder of Kerala Kaumudi, pioneering journalist and renaissance leader as well. Born as the son of Velayudhan and Kunhichali at Mayyanad near Kollam in 1871. He began contributing poems and articles on Sujananandini published by Paravoor Kesavanasan. Subsequently he served as its sub editor. C.V., as he was popularly known, started a school for low caste Hindus at Vellamanal, Mayyanad, Quilon and became its headmaster. An untiring activist of SNDP Yogam, he was elected its general secretary in 1928 and 1931. Valmiki Ramayanam, a prose rendering of the great epic, was his first work to come out in print, in 1901. He passed away in 1949 after a fruitful innings spanning nearly six decades.
Kumaran Asan(1873–1924) also known as Mahakavi Kumaran Asan, (the prefix Mahakavi awarded by Madras University in the year 1922 means "great poet" and the suffix Asan meaning scholar or teacher) was one of the triumvirate poets of Kerala. He was also a philosopher, a social reformer and a disciple of Sree Narayana Guru. Kumaran Asan initiated a revolution in Malayalam poetry in the first quarter of the 20th century, transforming it from the metaphysical to the lyrical. Deep moral and spiritual commitment is evident in Asan's poetry. His works are an eloquent testimony of poetic concentration and dramatic contextualization.In 1917 Asan married Bhanumathiamma. The Mahakavi lived for 51 years. His life was tragically cut short by a boat accident in January 1924 while returning toKollam from Alappuzha after attending a function as the chief guest. The boat capsized at Pallana and everybody drowned in the accident. The trail he blazed in the literary and social firmament of Kerala is an inspiration for any student of contemporary history. Kumaranasan was the only poet in Malayalam who became mahakavi without writing a mahakavyam.Sthothrakrithikal, Saundaryalahari,Veenapoovu, Oru Simhaprasavam, Nalini (Subtitle: Allengkil Oru Sneham), Leela,Sribuddhacharitham, Baalaraamaayanam, Graamavrikshattile Kuyil, Prarodanam,Chintaavishtayaaya Sita, Pushpavaadi , Duravasthha, Chandaalabhikshuki, Karuna, Manimaala,Vanamaala, Saamaanyadharmangal are his famous works.
K.C.Mammen Mappillai, the son of Kandathil Cheriyan mappila and Thayyil Mariya, was born in 1873. He became editor of the Malayalam language daily called Malayala Manorama after Kandathil Varghese Mappillai died. Besides being a noted journalist, he was a freedom-fighter. He was a member of the Sree Moolam Popular Assembly. He also went into development of plantations, and was the inspiration behind the various enterprises of his sons. He died in the year of 1953. Indiacharithram, Baconte Prasangangal, Aivan Ho, Gadyarathnamala, Remenisance are his major works.
K.C.Mammen Mappillai, the son of Kandathil Cheriyan mappila and Thayyil Mariya, was born in 1873. He became editor of the Malayalam language daily called Malayala Manorama after Kandathil Varghese Mappillai died. Besides being a noted journalist, he was a freedom-fighter. He was a member of the Sree Moolam Popular Assembly. He also went into development of plantations, and was the inspiration behind the various enterprises of his sons. He died in the year of 1953. Indiacharithram, Baconte Prasangangal, Aivan Ho, Gadyarathnamala, Remenisance are his major works.
Moorkoth Kumaran, born in 1874 in Tellichery, as the son of Ramunni and Kunhichirutha, was a teacher and a prominent short story writer in Malayalam. He has written more than Hundred Stories. Moreover Kumaran was the editer of Mithavadi, Kerala Chinthamani for a long period. Oru Vaidyante Anubhavangal is well known story of Kumaran. Lokapavadam, Kanakam moolam, Anpu Nair, Vasumathi are the novels written by Kumaran. Rajaputhravivaham, Jahaneera are also his scripts based on Indian history. He was a critic too. He was one of the intellectual disciples of Sree Narayana Guru fromMalabar area. He believed that the philosophy of Sree Narayana Guru was the best suited for social benefit and World peace. He devoted his literary abilities to spreading the messages of Narayana Guru. He wrote the first completed biography of Narayana Guru while Guru was alive. This biography contains the essence of Guru's message.
O.M.Cheriyan was a schollar who became famous through the work Hyndavadharmma Sudhakaram which simply narrates the fundamental principles of Hinduism. He was born to Ottaplakkal Mathu and Unichiyamma, on 12 July, 1874, at Puthuppalli in Kottayam. He was an Inspecter in education department. His major works are Hyndavadharmma Sudhakaram, GallivarudeSancharakathakal (translation) Christhavadharmma Navaneetham, Indiacharithrakathakal,Sahithyaviharam(criticism) and Kalante Kolayara(Stories).
Attoor Krishna Pisharody
Attoor Krishna Pisharody (1875–1964) was a renowned Sanskrit scholar, teacher and writer of Kerala. He was born on September 29, 1875 in Vadakkancheri in Thrissur district to Narayanan Namboothiri and Pappikkutty Pisharasyar. He learned Sanskrit in the traditional way from Kodungalloor Godavarma Bhattan Thampuran. From 1911 to 1929 he taught at Maharajas collge, Trivandrum and for the next five years worked as the Sanskrit tutor to the Maharaja of Travancore. He was the editor of two magazines Rasika rathnam and Mangalodayam. He was a veena artist and musicologist also. He died on June 5, 1964. His majoer works are Sangeetha chandrika, Bhashayum Sahityavum, Keralsahitya charitham,Kerala charitham, Vidya vivekam, Bhasha darpanam, Uthara Ramayanam (Translation),Shakunthalam (Translation) and Leelathilakam(Commentary).
K.Sukumaran, known as Malabar K Sukumaran, is one among the first story writers in Malayalam. He was born in 1876 in Kozhikode. He was an employee in Court. He died in 1956. Sukumara Kathamanjeri(4vol), Sukumarakathakal, Asooyamayam, Arante Kutty, Aa Vallatha Nottam, Irumban Kunchu, Vidhavayude Vasi, Oru Podikai are his major works.
P.V. Krishna Warrier, also known as Kavikulaguru, was born in 1877, at Kottakkal in Malappuram district, Kerala. Father was Cherukulappath Thrivikraman Namboodiri and mother Panniyampilli Variyath Sreedevi Varasyar. Krishana warriar was a great journalist and writer in Malayalam. He worked as the editer of Kavanakoumudi. Tholakavi, Udhanda Sasthrikal, Punnasseri Nambi Neelakandasarmma are Manmaranha Sahithyakaranmar the biographies, and Kavikesari and Chinthagrasthanaya Sreeraman are the Poetris published by Krishna warrier. He died in 1958.
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer (1877-1949), commonly known as Ulloor was a famous Malayalam poet and a noted historian. Ulloor was one of the famous triumvirate poet of Kerala South India in the first half of the 20th century. He was a poet who attempted to revive the classical heritage of Malayalam poetry. He was born at the Thamarassery Illam at Perunna, Changanassery. He started his work as a government servant who finally became the Chief Secretary to the Travancore Government. Ulloor published Umakeralam , a Mahakavyam in 1914. His best works include Pingala, Karnabhooshanam,Bhakthideepika and Chithrassala. His long poem (Mahakavyam) named Umaakeralam (1914) has as its theme, a particular phase in Kerala's history. The poem deals with the politics related to the monarchical power of Travancore in the 17th century. Ulloor was also an erudite scholar and a historian which can be seen from very famous work Kerala Saahitya Charitham (History of the Literature of Kerala), which consists of five volumes . Among his shorter narrative poems, Pingala andKarnabhooshanam are important. He contributed much to the Malayalam language as well as to the Malayalam literature both in prose and poetry.
Sahithya Panchanan P.K.Narayana Pillai
Born in 1878 at Ambalapuzha. His father was Damodaran Pillai and mother was Kunhilekshmy Amma. Sahithya Panchanan P.K.Narayana Pillai was a genius, a grammar pundit, writer, advocate and High Court Judge. He was Member of Travancore Legislative Assembly. It was he who laid foundation stone of literary criticism in Malayalam. He was the first President of Samastha Kerala Sahithya Parishad.
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Vallathol Narayana Menon (1878–1958)) popularly known as Mahakavi, was one of the celebrity poets in Malayalam language. Vallathol was born in Chennara, near Tirur in Malappuram district. Up to his 27 years he lived in Chennara and wrote so many poems after that he moved to Cheruthuruthi. Born in 1878 and died in March 1958. He is the author of the famous Sahithya Manjari. He got the title, Mahakavi for his Mahakaavyam 'Chitrayogam'. He played a prominent role in setting up the KeralaKalamandalam at Cheruthuruthy near the banks of Bharathapuzha River. Later this place was renamedVallathol Nagar. He raised [Kathakali] as a great art form to the level today. He wrote dozens of Kavyas In Malayalam. Vallathol wrote predominantly in Malayalam, the language of Kerala. Vallathol's poetry evolved from its classical beginnings to increasing expression of nationalist and broadly socialist sentiment. He did not know English. Vallathol's many works include the mahakavya Chitrayogam(1914), and the narrative poems Magdalena Mariyam (1921) and Kochu Sita (1928), as well as 11 volumes containing his collected romantic poems entitled Sahityamanjari. In addition to subjects from nature and the lives of ordinary people, Vallathol's opposition to the indignities of the caste system and the injustices suffered by the poor form the themes of many of his poems. His own struggle with deafness from his early twenties also features in some works. Kerala Kalamandalam - The temple of classical arts - It is the realisation of a poet's dream, of a life of dedication, of a journey through the agonies of creation, of the ecstasies of fulfillment.
Pandalam Kerala Varma
Kerala Varma (1879–1919), most commonly known as Mahakavi Pandalam Kerala Varma, was a poet and publisher. He was born in Pandalam, and belonged to the Pandalam Royal Family. He started writing Sanskrit poems from age 12, and Malayalam poems from age 19. One of his widely known poems are Daivame Kai Thozham, a prayer song. He published the fortnightly journal Kavana Kaumudi, which included all materials in poetry. The first issue of Kavana Kaumudi was published in 1904. The editorials of the journal included social, political, and contemporary issues. In 1979, a collection of his writings were reprinted and published as selected works.
Swadeshabhimani K. Ramakrishna Pillai
K. Ramakrishna Pillai was born on 25 May 1878 as the youngest son of Narasimhan Potti and Chakkiamma at Neyyattinkara, Travancore (1878–1916) was a writer, journalish Newspaper editor, and political activist in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. He was the editor of the newspaperSwadeshabhimani (The Patriot) and hence known by the name. The criticisms against the Diwan of Travancore, P. Rajagopalachari the Government and the Maharajah of Travancore that appeared in his newspaper irritated the authorities and eventually resulted in the confiscation of the newspaper and press and he was arrested and exiled from Travancore in 1910. He wrote Vrithantha Pathra Pravarthanam (1912), the first book on journalism in the Malayalam language. He also wrote thebiography of Karl Marx (1912) in Malayalam, which was the first Marx biography in any Indian language. Ramakrishna Pillai wrote over 20 books in his lifetime and many of them are very notable.Vruththaanthapathrapravarthanam, Ende Naadukadathal, Karl Marx, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Benjamin Franklin, Biography, Socrates(All Biographies), Pathradharmam (Essays)Mannante Kannathu, Christopher Columbus (Translation in Malayalam), Narakathil ninnu, Kerala Bhasholpathy, Delhi Durbar, The Deportation case of Travancore are his works.
B. Kalyani Amma is the wife of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai who was exiled from Travancore by the Maharajah of Travancore on account of his criticism against Diwan’s corruption and illegal activities. She suffered a lot being the wife of a courageous journalist. She was a notable litterateur also. Born on 11 Kumbhom 1059. Her important works: Vyazhavatta Smaranakal, Karmaphalam, Mahathikal, Atmakatha. She also translated a novel written by Rabindranatha Tagore.
T.Ramalingam Pilla is famous among Malayaliees with his work English_English_Malayalam Dictionry.He born in Februvary 20, 1980 to Suthavallisthanu Pilla and Ramalakshmi Ammal. He was the Official Transltor in Thiruvithakoor Government. He died on 6 August 1968. English_English_Malayalam Nikhandu, Malayalasaili Nikhandu, Kairali Gadyapadhathi, 12 Sthreerathnangal, Lekhanamanjari are his notable works.
Pandit K.P.Karuppan was a distinguished poet and social reformer who fought against the untouchability, racial discrimination and for the uplift of oppressed class of the society. Born on May 24, 1885 at Cheranallur in Ernakulam District. Father: Sri. Ayyan. Mother: Smt.Kochupennu.After primary education, he underwent higher studies at the Kodungallur Kovilakom (royal mansion). The Prince of Cochin gave encouragement to him and with his aid Karuppan could study Sanskrit. He started writing poems at his age of 14 years. He was a teacher in Ernakulam Maharajas College. He was elected to the Cochin Legislative Council in the year 1924. Kerala Varma Valiya Koi Thampuran conferred him the title Vidwan (scholar) and the Prince of Cochin awarded him the title Kavithilakan (great poet). Lankamardanam, Nyshadham (dramas), Bhymeeparinayam, Urvasi (translations), Sakunthalam Vanchippattu, Kavyapedakam (poems), Kairalee Kouthukam, Jalodyanam, Chithralankaram, Rajarajaparvam, Vilapageetham are his works. Jathikummi, a poem written by him describes the suffering and agony of the oppressed people who faced racial discrimination at his times. He passed on March 23, 1938.
Vagbhadanandan, born in 1884 at Patyam in Kannur District, was a scholar, journalist and an orator with unequal eloquence. Parents named him as Kunhikannan. Kunhikannan became a disciple of Alathur Brahmananda Sivayogi and accepted ascetic life. Thereafter, he began to known as Vagbhadananda. In 1906, he established a school for poor and oppressed at Karaparamba near Kozhikode and taught them Sanskrit. In 1917, he formed Atmavidya Sanghom, an organisation for preaching his philosophies and ideals. H traveled the length and breadth of Kerala and established branches of Atmavidya Sanghom. Atmavidya, Atmavidyalekhamala, Aadhyanmayugom, Gandhiyum Sasthravyakhyanavum, Prarthananjali are his major works.
Pannisseri Nanu Pillai
Pannisseri Nanu Pillai was born to Vayalil PappuKurup and Planullil Kalyani Amma, on 11 September 1885 in Kannamkuzhy house of South Maruthoorkulangara village in Kollam District. He was a poet, scholar, ascetic, critic and artist from Kerala. Pannisseri Nanu Pillai composed four Attakkathas: Nizhalkuttu, Bhadrakalivijayam, Padukapattabhishekam and Sankaravijayam which are widely accepted in the world of kathakali. Nizhalkuthu attakkatha, Bhadrakali Vijayam, Kathakali Prakaram, Sankara Vijayam are also his works.On August 20, 1942 while watching his disciple perform the Kamaladhalam he breathed his last. His life has been documented and was telecasted on Kairali channel.
K.P.Kesava Menon, born on 1886, the son of Bheeman Achan and Meenakshy Nethyar of Palakkad Swaroopam. K.P.Kesava Menon is one of the famous leaders of Kerala has ever seen. He was an idealist who was true to his words and deeds. Persons like him were very rate in Kerala. He started practice as an advocate in Kozhikode after his studies in England. He actively participated in National Movement. He led Vaikom Sathyagraha and Guruvayoor Sathyagraha against untouchable and for temple entry to lower caste. He is the founder and was the Chief Editor of Mathrubhumi, the national daily in Malayalam. He wrote a dozen of books. He died in 1978.
P.Ananthan Pilla was born in 1886 in Aluva. He was a college teacher. He died in 1966. Keralapanini, Milton, Prabandhaparijatham, Prabandha Ratnkaram, Sahithya Prasangamala, Sahuthyasanthanam, Willyam Shakesphere, Samudradheeran etc are hiw main works.
Nalappattu Narayana Menon
Nalappattu Narayana Menon is very famous poet in Malayalam, born on 7nth October, 1887 in Ponnani. Nalappadan's world of literature is vast and amazing. His work 'Kannuneer thulli' is written on the death of his wife. 'Pavangal', the Malayalam translation of the famous book 'Les miserables', the story of Jeen-Val-Jeen, written by Victor Yugo is one among his notable works. Arshanjanam, Rathisamrajyam, Sulochana, Pukayilamahathmyam, Daivagathi etc are his other works. He died on 31st June, 1954.
Kesari Balakrishna Pillai
Kesari was born in the year 1889. His father was Akathoot Damodaran Kartha and mother Parvathy Amma. Pillai belonged to the Pulickal Mele Veedu family of Thampanoor, Trivandrum. Kesari Balakrishna Pillai, who was known by the name of the newspaper he ran, "Kesari". He was also a literary critic, essayist and translated literary works form French and other languages to Malayalam in order to give guidance to other writers. Kesari is the most influential figure in modern Kerala's intellectual life. Kesari was also a visionary writer who visualized the idea of a progressive movement in literature. Through his writings, he tried to create a modern Kerala by presenting his futuristic vision. He was a mentor of many writers. He died on 18 December 1960. His published books: Sankethika Nirupanangal Sahitya Nirupanangal Kesariyude Lokangal - Edited by M.N. Vijayan, Rupamanjar, Navalokam, Outlines of the Proto-Historic Chronology of Western Asia.
Puthezhath Raman Menon
Born in November 8, 1887 at Manalur in Thrissur. Father: Parameswara Menon, Mother: Pappu Amma. Puthezhath Raman Menon was one among the few great men who contributed much to Malayhalam literature. He had command on almost all fields of Malayalam language. His contributions to the uplift of the society were also remarkable. He was District and High Court Judge. He translated poems of Rabindranatha Tagore in Malayalam. He was the Chairman of Sahithya Academy. He died on 27 January 1973
Poet and writer, V.C. Balakrishna Panicker, the son of Kappedath Krishnanunni Nair, was born in 1889 at Oorakam in Vengara. His poem Oru Vilapam is famous in Malayalam. This work was in the age of 19 of Panicker. Viswaroopam is another important work. Meenakshi, Indumatheeswayamvaram, Devisthavam, Monkigeetham, Nisa, Bhoopalamangalam, Durgashtakam are also the donationsto the Malayalam language of Panicker. He was the editer of the periodicals(Malabari, Kerala Chinthamani, Chakravarthi). He died in 1915 at the early age of 26.
Vadakkumkoor Rajaraja Varma Raja
Vadakkumkoor Rajaraja Varma Raja, a renowned schollar, poet and critic, was born on 27 November 1891 in a Raja's family in Vykom.He had deep knowledge is Sanskrit language and literature. His firm opinion about Malayalam was It was language originated from Sanskrit. He died on 28 February 1978. Keraleeya Samskrutha Sahithya Charithram (6 Volumes), Raghuveeracharitham,Raaghavabhyudhayam, Bhaashaa shaili pradeepam, Uththarabhaaratham, Kerala Sahithya Charithraththintaey charchchayum pooranavum (2 Volumes), Ramarjunaeyam Champoo, Valmikiand Shreekaalidhaasar are his major works.
Mahakavi Pallath Raman
Mahakavi Pallath Raman was born in 1891 to Pallath Ikkoran and Lakshmi Amma, in Trichur. He was a poet, writer, social reformer and community leader. He was born in the Indian city of Kochi, Kerala. He was influenced by the teachings of Sree Narayana Guru. His famous work was Amrita Pulinam, fetched him many awards. Arival Chuttika, Ravana Puthran are his Dramas and Amrita Pulinam, Vanabala, Nirmmala are his Novels.
K.K.Raja was one of the famous poet belonging to kumarapuram Palace of Thalappilly Royal families. His Famous Poem “Baashpanjali” holds a significant position among legendary elegies in Malayalam, written on demise of Ashtavaidyan Pazhanellippurath Thaikat Unni Mooss which affected Sri.K.K.Raja very deeply. Malanattil, Kavanakusumanjali, Bashapanjali, Thulaseedamam, Harshanjali, Vellithoni, Theerthadakan are his major works.
P.Sankaran Nambiar was the literary critic who made the "English Geethakam" familier to Malayalam. He was born on 10 June, 1892 at Veliyannur in Trichur. He was professer in Maharaja's College, Ernakulam and retired as the Principal. He died on 2 March, 1954. Sahithyanishkutam, Makarandamanjari, Sahithyavum Samskaravum, Malayala Sahithyacharithram are his major works.
Sardar K.M.Panicke was born on 3 June 1895.He was a distingushed diplomat, auther and historiyan. He was an Indian Ambassador to China, France and Egypt. He was also the Vice-Chancellor of Mysore University. More than 50 books have been published bt Panicker. He died on 10 December 1963.
E. V. Krishna Pillai was born in the year1895. He was the son-in-law of the legendary Malayalam novelist C. V. Raman Pillai and the father of the popular Malayalam film comedian Adoor Bhasi. Pillai lived in Peringanad, near Adoor, TravancoreHe was a renowned writer of Malayala literature. Among his works are comedies, dramas, short stories and an autobiography. He was also a columnist and a caricaturist. His works like Chiriyum Chintayum and Jeevithasmaranakal are considered as masterpieces. He died in the year 1938.
Born in 1896. V.T.Bhattathirippad (Vellithuruthi Thazath Raman Bhattathirippad) was a social reformer, social critic, freedom fighter, orator and dramatist. He was a legend of his time. He gave leadership for the reformation movement against malevolent practices prevalent in the Brahmin community of Kerala. Influenced by the national movement, he plunged into independence struggle while studying in his school final class. His drama Adukkalayil Ninnu Arangathekku written in 1929 gave a picture of sufferings that confronted the Namboothiri women of his time and played a vital role in eradicating the malevolent rituals and customs prevalent in the orthodox Brahmin community. In addition to Adukkalayil Ninnu Arangathekku, he wrote his autobiography (3 vols), several short stories and collections of essays. Amidst his social and literary activities, he could not find a decent job and he had to rely petty job in the Mangalodayam publication company at Thrissur for his livelihood. He died in 1982
A.D.Harisarma Was one of the eminent critic and scholler in Malayalam. He born on 23 August 1896 at Pallippuram near Kochi. He was teacher and he served as secretary of Samastha Kerala Sahithya Parishath and as member of Kerala Sahithya Accadamy. He died in 1972. Sahithyabhooshanam, Suvarnnarasmikal, Misrakanthi, Sahithyasameeksha, etc are his works in literary criticism. He published biographies: Mahakavi Ulloor, Kandathil Vargheese Mappila, Randu Sahithyanayakanmar, Bhashakavikal. Malayalsahithyam, Nadakapravesika are also the works of Haisarma.
Kainikkara Padmanabha Pillai
Kainikkara Padmanabha Pillai was born on 10 October,1898. He was a Malayalam author and actor, a prominent speaker, teacher and thinker. His plays addressed serious themes such as patriotism, sacrifice and justice. He also drew on the tragic heritage of E.V. Krishna Pillai with his worksVeluttampi Dalava and Kalvariyile Kalpapadapam. Veluttampi Dalava describes the herioc deeds and tragic death of a minister of the state of Travancore. His 1959 book The red interlude in Keralapublished for the Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee gave a thoughtful discussion of how the communists came to power in Kerala, often quoted in analyses of the politics of that period. He was given a Sahitya Akademi Award in 1967. His selected works: Veluttampi Dalava, Calvaryile Kalpapadapam, Vidhimandapam, Agnipanjaram, Swati Tirunal Maharaja, Valarunna Chakravalam, Yavanika, Chandrakandam(dramas). His short stories: Meghavum Minnalum, Ningal Ariyum etc. Ozhukkukal, Makanta Amma, Kadinta Maravil are his Novels.
Karoor Neelakanta Pillai
Neelakanta Pillai was a Malayalam short story writer and one of the founders of Sahithya Pravarthaka Sahakarana Sangham. He was born in 1898 Feb 22 in the village of Ettumanoor in Kottayam district, to Kunhilekshmy Amma and Neelakanta Pillai in karoor is his house. He began his career as a school teacher. He along with Vaikom Muhammad Basheer are considered to be the eminent storytellers inMalayalam literature. His short stories often portrayed the plight of the middle class in a simple and straightforward manner.Many of his stories were translated to other Indian languages and English. The short story Anakkaran was translated into English by Santa Ramesvara Rao. His story named 'anchukadalasu' is filmed.In 1960. He got kerala sahithya academi award.
T.M.Chummar, a great schollar in language and literature, was born in 1899. He was a college teacher. He died in 1988. His major works are Padya Sahithyacharithram, Bhasha Gadyasahithyacharithram, Mahakavi Kunchan Nambiar, C.V yude Akhyayikakal, Chinthapadham, Vicharaleela and Gadyasourabham.
Kainikkara Kumara Pillai
Kainikkara Kumara Pillai (1900–1988) was a Malayalam teacher, actor and playwright, who wrote classics such as "Harichandra".Kainikkara Kumara Pillai was born in 1900 to an educated, middle-class family. His father Perunayil N. Kumara Pillai was a successful lawyer and an Ayurvedic pundit. He has served as principal of Mahatma Gandhi College-Trivandrum, Director of Educational Services of All India Radio, Trivandrum..He was one of the more important Kerala playwrights of the mid 20thcentury. He translated Shakespeare's Othello and Antony and Cleopatra etc. His works includeDurandashanga, richandracharitam, alahradayam, nimangalam, havum, Mukhtiyum Veshangal, Kevilakkukal, Prema Parinamam, nipareeksha, charaveechikal , hane Konna Makan, thony and Cleopatra, tyathinde Panthavu, thraka Manushyan, ndhi Vichara Veethikal, ichukali, dakeeyam,inikkarayude Prabandhangal.
Kuttikrishna Marar (14 June 1900 – 6 April 1973) was an Indian essayist and literary critic born inPattambi, Kerala. Perhaps he was an odd personality who showed courage to question anything that he felt wrong in the field of literary criticism. His work on Bharathaparyadanam - A critical study of theMahabharata is one that won him many honours. It is also a part of the ICSE syllabus with exams being based on it.He passed the Sahityashiromani exam from the Samskrita College in Pattambi. He started his career as Sahithyacharya at the Kerala Kalamandalam. For 15 years he was with Mahakavi Vallathol Narayana Menon and published many of his writings. His work Malayaala Saili is still one of the most authentic treatises on proper Malayalam usage. Bharatha Paryatanam, Sahithyasallapam,Danthagopuram, Kaivilakku (collections of literary criticism) are his important works on literary criticism. In addition to the above, there are more than 19 collections essays on literary criticism.Another important work of Marar is "Kala Jeevitham Thanne, which won him Kerala Sahithya Academy Award, Kendra Sahithya Academy Award and M.P. Paul Prize.
Kesavadev, born in 1901, was a veteran novelist and playwright. He was always a rebel. He is known as leader of anti-establishment movement in literature and gave shape to a new culture in literature. He accepted intellectual rowdism as his ideology. Important works: Odayil Ninnu, Ayalkar, Kannadi. Died on 3 July 1983
Sebastian Kunjukunju Bhagavathar
Sebastian Kunjukunju Bhagavathar, born on 9th February 1901 was a Malayalam theatr actor, singer, and author. He is known for his contributions to Malayalam sangeetha natakam (musical operas). He, along with Ochira Velukutty, was responsible for breaking the monotony of musical operas with their 1930 play Karuna, an adaptation of Kumaran Asan's famous poetic piece. He died in 1985.
Born 3 June 1901. Sankara Varier and Lekshmykutty Amma were his Father and Mother. G.Sankara Kurup was a great personality who rendered valuable contribution to the growth and development of Malayalam poetry and who created unique form of illustrated verse. The early poems of G depicted the nature, god, and soul as portrayed by Rabindranatha Tagore. In the later stages he penetrated to the field of mysticism, humanism, nationalism and internationalism. He exalted imagination and lofty thinking found its echo in all his poems. His poems reached the varying depth of human soul. He is the first Jnanapeeth laureate of Malahyalam. He was Professor in Maharajas College, Ernakulam. He also served as producer of All India Radio, editor of Sahithya Parishad, Fellow of Sahithya Academy. His important works are Odakkuzhal, Innu Njan Nale Nee, Sooryakanthi, Ente veli, Siva Thandavam, Chandrakkala, Nizhalukal Neelunnu. Died on 2 February 1978.
Sister Mery John Thottam
Mery John Thottam is the only poetess who wrote Mahakavyam in Malayalam.She was born on 24 June, 1901. She belongs to the Thottam family at Ilanhi. After 1928, when she bacame a Yogini, she was known as Mery Beneenja. Geethavali, Kavitharamam, Marthoma Vijayam and Gandhijayanthi are two Mahakavyas written by her. Eeswaraprasadam, Vidhivaibhavam, Madhumanjari, Kavanamela, Magi, Bharatha Mahalakshmi, Athmavinte Snehageetha, Thottam Kavithakal are her other works in Malayalam.
P.N.Panicker was born on 3 March 1909 to Govinda Pillai and Janaky Amma at Neelamperoor in Kottayam District. A teacher by profession, he started Sanadanadharmam Library in his birthplace in 1926.. The activities of the Kerala Grandhasala Sanghom which was initiated by P. N. Panicker ignited a popular cultural movement in Kerala at the end of which the state acquired total literacy in the 1990s.He was the life and soul of the father of literacy movement in Kerala. The Grandhasala programme, which developed and spread throughout Kerala with the active involvement of people, was an outcome of the relentless efforts of Sri.P.N.Panicker. In 1977, he founded the Kerala Association for Non-formal Education and Development (KANFED). KANFED was highly instrumental in starting the Kerala State Literacy Mission. He died on 19 June 1995, at the age of 86. The Government of Kerala observes 19 June annually as Vayanadinam (Day of Reading) with a week-long series of activities at schools and public institutions to honour the contributions of P.N. Panicker to the cause of literacy, education and library movement. The Department of Posts honoured Panicker by issuing a commemorative postage stamp on 21 June, 2004.
Bodheswaran, the son of Kunjan Pillai and Janaki Amma, born in 1902. His original name is Kesava Pillai. He adopted the name “Bodheswaran” at Kasi (varanasi) while on a pilgrimage. He was a progressive revolutionist who stood and fought for his principles in the political and cultural fields for more than half a century. He led campaign in favour of Vaikom Sathyagraha. His Keralagana is famous even today. He died in 1990.
Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup
Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup, born on 10 May 1902, Father: Padmanabha Kurup. Mother: Lekshmy Kunjamma. He followed the footprints of Vallathol and enriched Malayalam poetry. His poems depicted the vision of Bharathavarsha, the spiritual divinity and fragrance. These special features made him great. He translated Subramania Bharathi’s work from Tamil to Malayalam. He won Sahithya Academy Award for his contributions. His important works are Kama surabhi, Swarna sadhya, Swarajya geetha. He was awarded D.Lit. by the Kanpur University. He died on 20 August 1980
Sanjayan, the son of Kunhiraman and Paru Amma, born on 17 June 1903. Sanjayan is the pseudonym of M.Ravunni Nair (M.R.Nair) who wrote satire articles stuffed with humor and social criticism. He was a Government Servant and Teacher in his early days. Later, he turned to the field of journalism and was the editor of Kerala Pathrika, Viswaroopam and Sanjayan magazines. The humorous yet highly critical essays on contemporary societal issues appeared in Sanjayan brought fame to him. He was a scholar not only in Malayalam but in English and Sanskrit also. He also translated plays of Shakespeare into Malayalam.
N.P.Chellappan Niar was born in Mavelikkara on 3rd October, 1903 to Nedungatt Parameswaran Pilla and Porur Paleth Kalyani Amma. Being a famous dramatist in Malayalam, he composed, acted, and directed in many humorous plays and skits. Irony and Satirism are the signs of his almost works. He was a schlar of Kerala History. He has published about 40 books in malayalam. Attam bomb, Idiyum Minnalum, Ibileesukalute Nattil, Karnnan, Ksheerabala sahacharadikashayathil, Dhoomakethu, Pranaya Jambhavan, Minnal Pranayam, Leftanant nani, Vikata Yogi, Kozhinjuveena Kattupookkal, Subhadra B.AIenampeechikalum Vanadevathamarum, Ere nerum Kure Nunayum, Kakkakalum Kakkathamburattikalum, Malakkukalum Ibileesukalum etc are his notable works.
P.K.Parameswaran Nair gave a great donation to the literature in its field os Biography.He born in Kozhimukku in Kuttanad, Alappuzha. His notable biographies are C.V.Raman Pillai, Mahathma Ganhdi, Thunchathacharyan, Waltaire and Sahithyapanchanan. Malayala Sahithyacharithram, Ahimsayum Lokasakthiyum and Bhavarasmikal are also his works in Malayalam.
Joseph Mundassery, born on 1903 July 17, is the personality who marked his footprints in the history of Malayalam literature, education, social and political fields. He was an eminent teacher, renowned literary critic, an outstanding orator, and an able administrator. Joseph Mundassery was the first Education Minister of the Kerala State. On assuming office, he introduced the famous Education Bill in the Kerala Legislative Assembly suggesting radical reformations in the field of education. This bill aggravated communal forces and mangers of private educational institutions, which ultimately led to Vimochana Samaram (liberation struggle) and dismissal of the E.M.S. ministry, the first Communist Government elected through ballot in the world. Joseph Mundassery was the first Vice-Chancellor of the Cochin University of Science & Technology. There are more than 45 literary works at his credit. Kozhinja Elakal is his autobiography. Mattoli, Anthareeksham, Kavyapeedika, Prayanam, Natakantham Kavithwam are some of his works on literary criticism.
Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai
Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai was a historian and scholar from Kerala who through his works enriched the field of historical research of Kerala. He was born in Elamkulam village near Kalluvathukkal in Kollam district on 8 November 1904. Kunjan Pillai had his school education at Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam. He started his career as a school teacher and later became lecturer in Malayalam at Many colleges. He died on 4 March 1973.
M.P.Paul born on May 1, 1904 at Vaappuzha. His father was Menochery Poulose and mother was Rosamma. M.P.Paul was an eminent critic. He was a teacher in St.Thomas College, Thrissur, S.B.College, Chanaganassery and Mar Ivanious College, Thiruvananthapuram. He also established tutorical centres at Thrissur, Kottayam, Ernakulam and Thiruvananthapuram, which were the centres of knowledge. He was he founder President of Sahithya Pravarthaka Sahakarana Sanghom. Cherukathaprasthanam, Novel Sahithyam and Soundary Nireekshnam are some of his famous works on literary criticism.
Idasseri Govindan Nair
Idasseri Govindan Nair is known as Sakthiyude Kavi in Malayalam. He born on 23 December 1906. Father was Krishna Kurup and Mother was Kunhikutty Amma. Idasseri is poet who uses rustic images beautifully in his works. His younger days were of poverty and hence he was constrained to accept the job of an Advocate’s Clerk. Idasseri started writing poems at the early age of twelve. One of his best works is Poothappaattu, which connects the strange and the ordinary with finesse and loveliness. His other important works are Bimbisarante Idayan, Orupidi Nellikka, Kavile Pattu. He won Kerala Sahitya Academy Award in 1969 and 1970. Died on 14 October 1974.
P.Kunhiraman Nair, also known as Mahakavi P, was a renowned Malayalam poet whose works romanticised the natural beauty of his home state of Kerala. Born in Bellikoth near Kanhangad of North Malabar(4 November 1906 – 27 May 1978). P. led a Bohemian lifestyle, wandering across Kerala, living in several places, meeting their people and making them part of his life and literature. He worked as a school teacher, having taught at Koodali near Kannur and Kollengode in Palakkad district. Kunhiraman Nair was an award winner of both the Kerala Sahithya Akademi and the Kendra Sahithya Academy Award. His famous poetris are Kaliyachhan, Onassadya, Pookkalam, Thaamarathoni,Vasantholsavam, Chilamboli, Ratholsavam andThamaratheni. Indira, Chaaithraraksha, Nirmala, Ramabai and Veerapratinha are stories, Rangamandapam, Upaasana, SwapnasanchariPoonilaavu and Chandramandalam are plays written by Mahakavi. P. He has also written Two essays:Vichaaravibhaatam and Satyaraksha, two autobiographies: Kaviyude kalpadukal and Ennethirayunna njan.
Ullattil Govindankutty Nair
Ullattil Govindankutty Nair was a well known critic in malayalam., born in 1906. He has used pen names like G.K.N and Sakalyan. Kavyaswadanam, Vimarsanavum Aswadanavum, Adhunikasahithyam, Bhashayum Gaveshanavum, Vicharadeepthi, Khandapadham, Vicharadhara and Rooparekha are his eminent works.
Idappalli Raghavan Pillai
Born in 1908. Idappalli Raghavan Pillai was a great poet who created one and only form of verse in simple and beautiful Dravidian style. His poems rise strong criticism against the injustice and hypocrisy that prevailing in the society. He transformed his painful experiences agony as his poems. Wonderful expression of romanticism can be found in his poems. Edapalli belonged to a poor family. He was unlucky in love. He committed suicide on account of the failure of his love at the age of 27 years. His important works are Thushaarahaaram, Navasaurabham, Hridayasmitham, Maninaadam, Idappalli Raghavan Pillayude Kritikal.
The full name of M.R.B is Mullamangalath Raman Bhattathiripad. He was a social reformer, cultural leader and a Malayalam writer. He was born in to a Nambudiri family of Kerala in 1908. He joined Yogakshema Sabha and worked with V. T. Bhattathiripad and his brother Premji. When widow marriage was considered as taboo in Nambuthiri community, he married one. MRB wrote 14 books, which included two plays: Ente Mmana (1927) and Marakkudakkullile Maha Narakam (1927). He was a recipient of the Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka Academy Award, the Kerala Sahithya Academy Award (1992), the Basheer Puraskaram and the Deviprasadam Puraskaram. He died in 2001.
Vaikom Muhammed Basheer
Vaikom Muhammed Basheer is widely known as Beypore Sultan (Sultan of Beypore). He, born on January 20, 1908 at Vaikkam, was an eminent novelist and storyteller, who won recognition and popularity. He was one among the famous novel-trios – Basheer, Thakazhy and Kesava Dev. While studying in V Form, he determined to join the Independence struggle and left the school. He went to Kozhikode and took part in the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and was arrested before they could participate in the Satyagraha. Basheer was sentenced to imprisonment and sent to Kannur Central Prison. Freed from prison, he formed a terrorist movement and consequentially, a warrant was issued for his arrest and he left Kerala. Then he took up a long journey throughout India and many countries in Asia and Africa. After his return from the long journey, Basheer could not find any job for his livelihood. When he approached a book publisher in search of a job, he was assured some money if he wrote a story. Thus he wrote his first story Ente Thankam. Realising his path, Basheer made a career as a writer. Basheer continued his relationship with revolutionary leaders, which ultimately led to his arrest and imprisonment for two and half years. He wrote many of his works while he was in the jail. Basheer is known for his unconventional style of language. The major theme of all his stories is love and humanity. Main characteristic feature of his stories is its originality. Being a judicious observer of human character, he combined humour and misery in his works. Love, hunger and poverty are the recurring themes in his works. Basheer won many awards including Central Sahithya Academy Award. His main works are Premalekhanam, Sabdangal, Aanavaariyum Ponkurisum, tuppappakkoranendarnnu, Mucchittu kalikkarante Makal, Sthalatte Pradhaana Divyan, Pathummayute Aadu, Matilukal, Mantrikappuucha, Jeevitha Nizhalpatukal, Maranattinte Nizhal, Anuragaathinte Dinangal, Polisukarante Makal, Anargha Nimisham, Viddhikalute Swargam, Visappu, Visvavikhyathamaaya Mookku. He died in Beypore, on July 5, 1994.
T.Ubaid, the cultural leader of Kasargod, was born at Thalangara in the year 1908. Proficient in Malayalam and Kannada, T.Ubaid translated many Malayalam literary pieces into Kannada and vice-versa. He was also a researcher in Moppla songs and a noted Poet of Arabia – Malayalam. Several of his poems were collected under the titles, Navarathna Malika Bashqadhara, Chandrakala etc. He was an effective speaker and member of Kerala Sahithya Academy. He died in the year 1972.
Mullamangalath Paremeswaran Namboothirippad, bother of M.R.B is the person who known as Premji. He was a poet, acter and dramtist. Premji was born on 23 September 1908 in a Namboodiri Brahmin family in Vanneri, Malappuram, when Kerala was experiencing a social upraising. Premji started his professional life as a proof ed